• The degree of motor impairment or recovery and the attained levels of autonomy in daily living activities were measured by the FM-UE score and the FIM scale before and after the therapy, and by means of kinematic measures such as the movement morphology and mean duration and speed.
• Improvement was observed in the FM-UE and FIM mean scores (with 15% and 6% increases) and in the movement mean duration (18%) and speed (23%), with better regularity of trajectories.
• Improvements do not appear to have been influenced by age, time since stroke, or site of brain damage. Instead, the severity of impairment was crucial for the outcome.
• Comparison between the degrees of recovery attained after standard or V.R.-reinforced learning in two randomly assigned post-stroke patient groups showed significantly increased FM-UE scores in all 30 patients, but improvement was greater after V.R.-supported therapy.
• The different outcome was ascribed, at least in part, to the feedback information about knowledge-of-results and knowledge-of-performance provided by the system and to the reinforced learning provided by the V.R.-based rehabilitation approach.